- Die fragile Demokratie The Fragility of Democracy
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This situation was found more worsen during the last election held in , when all political parties blamed for ballot theft and party voters were on streets for their political protests. The rigging allegations have been a common phenomenon in Pakistan over the period. Consequently, despite of the political and social differences; there is recognition among all local and international stakeholders that electoral reforms are vital and essential to sustain democracy in Pakistan.
Poorer and bogus electoral process gives birth to a weaker government which invites non-democratic elements like Military and religious groups to take over to control government. This practice is more common in Pakistani political and social culture therefore, its constitution was breached by Martial laws several times. Many types of reforms exist and hence their definitions can mean many things.
Different experts and authors have defined reforms differently based on their academic research and understanding on social, fiscal, administrational, managerial, organisational, political and economic set-ups. Political setup and its developing history differs from country to country. For few country social, political and administrative reforms are slower and lesser effective than others due to its governmental structure, financial condition and literacy rates.
This is common in sub-continental countries like Pakistan, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Maldives. Pakistan is a federation with 4 federating units provinces who operate under a common Law judicial system like UK, Australia and Canada. Further, separation of power is also similar of UK, Australia i. Under Pakistani constitutional frame of work, elections are to be held after each 5 year which in fact more often happened earlier before completing the tenure of government.
Die fragile Demokratie The Fragility of Democracy
Majority election system non-presidential and non-proportional representation system is method of state election and provincial elections in Pakistan. Chief ministers elected by provincial assemblies of each province. Unlike Australia, Pakistani election is based on first-past-the-post voting method instead of preferential voting.
In Pakistan, up till now total 11 Elections held from to For first 15 years after its independence in from British Monarch, no elections were held in Pakistan. See the complete LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Khaled Ahmed has 3 jobs listed on their profile. See the Khaled Ahmed has 1 job listed on their profile. Khaled Ahmed Moubarak LinkedIn professional community. Khaled Ahmed's education is listed on their profile. Khaled Ahmed has 2 jobs listed on their profile. Khaled Ahmed oraby LinkedIn community. Among other germane issues, the author discusses the following: the suitability of the European model of electricity markets liberalization for economies in transition; the use of the Public Services Obligations PSO to address the impact of electricity markets liberalization; the use of regulated prices and measures for granting priority rights for cross-border capacity allocation as PSOs; the Court of Justice judgment in Federutility on the sustainability of states protection of their different types of customers, including the large businesses; the Energy Community as a step towards a Pan-European Energy Community; the effect.
The authors proposed rethinking of the public services obligation offers new views on using this tool more effectively and proposes possibilities for its practical implementation through measures such as energy efficiency, allocation of interconnectors capacity, transparency, addressing the affordability issue and the protection of vulnerable customers. The book is remarkable for its clear analysis of the policy lessons arising from the export of the idea of liberalized energy markets, and will be welcomed by practitioners, officials, academics and others in energy law and policy for its informative and forward-looking overview of the national and cross-border reforms in the Energy Community framework.
Neben wissenschaftsinternen Dynamiken werden auch politische Rahmenbedingungen fr die historische Nationsforschung diskutiert. Dabei wird offensichtlich, dass es sich beim Verhltnis zwischen Politik und Nationsforschung um eine komplexe, miteinander vernetzte gesamteuropische Problematik handelt, fr welche verkrzte Gegenstze wie Diktatur Demokratie oder Ost West nicht ausreichen.
Vielmehr wird der Versuch unternommen, die Geschichte der Nationsforschung nach als eine vergleichende und transnationale Wissenschaftsgeschichte des geteilten Europa zu betrachten. This book brings together insights from the worlds of party politics and public administration in order to analyze the role of political parties in public appointments across contemporary Europe. Based on an extensive new data gathered through expert interviews in fifteen European countries, this book offers the first systematic comparative assessment of the scale of party patronage and its role in sustaining modern party governments.
Among the key findings are: First, patronage appointments tend to be increasingly dominated by the party in public office rather than being used or controlled by the party organization outside parliament. Second, rather than using appointments as rewards, as used to be the case in more clientelistic systems in the past, parties are now more likely to emphasize appointments that can help them to manage the infrastructure of government and the state.
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In this way patronage becomes an organizational rather than. Third, patronage appointments are increasingly sourced from channels outside of the party, thus helping to make parties look increasingly like network organizations, primarily constituted by their leaders and their personal and political hinterlands. The book is dedicated to the memory of Peter Mair. International Protection of Human Rights: A textbook 2nd, rev. The book adopts an integrated approach to the study of political communication that combines a demand side with a supply side vision of democracy.kick-cocoa.info/components/zepeduzus/nehip-come-faccio-a.php
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The key question it tries to answer is whether, in direct democratic campaigns, the political elites are capable of manipulating the voters in such a way as to impose their policy goals without taking the voters preferences into account. Based on a detailed analysis of the politicians strategies, media coverage, and the opinion formation of the public, the authors arrive at the optimistic conclusion that direct democratic campaigns are rather more enlightening than manipulating. The voters learn considerably in the course of the campaigns and based on their enhanced knowledge the overwhelming majority make choices consistent with their preferences.
How are political conflicts organized and articulated in the twenty-first century?
And how does the transformation of territorial boundaries affect the scope and content of political conflicts? This book sets out to answer these questions by analyzing the results of a study of national and European electoral campaigns, protest events and public debates in six West European countries. While the mobilization of the losers in the processes of globalization by new right populist parties is seen to be the driving force of the restructuring of West. European politics, the book goes beyond party politics. It attempts to show how the cleavage coalitions that are shaping up under the impact of globalization extend to state actors, interest groups and social movement organizations, and how the new conflicts are framed by the various actors involved.
An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income and occupational status and, conversely, decrease unemployment. New insights into the concepts of bonding and bridging arise through quantitative research methods, using longitudinal and cross-sectional data.
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Referring to a dense network with thick trust, bonding is measured as family ties, coethnic ties and trust in the family. Bridging is seen in terms of inter-ethnic ties, thus implying a crosscutting network with thin trust. Immigrant Performance in the Labour Market reveals that although bonding allows immigrants to get by, bridging enables them to get ahead.
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The book confronts the life and intellectual heritage of the Galician-Jewish exiled journalist and writer Joseph Roth Through the quandaries that occupied his mature writingsnostalgia, suffering, European culture, Judaism, exile, self-narrationthe book analyses the greater Central European literary culture of the interwar European years through the lens of modern displacement and Jewish identity.
Moving between his journalism, novels and correspondence, Lazaroms follows Roths life as it rapidly disintegrated alongside radicalized politics, exile, the rise of Nazism, and Europes descent into another world war. Despite these tragedies, which forced him into homelessness, Roth confronted his predicament with an ever-growing political intensity. The Grace of Misery is an intellectual portrait of a profoundly modern writer whose works have gained a renewed readership in the last decade.
Using consumer credit regulation as a case study, this book investigates how the specific legislation in this field can be explained by the major streams of economic philosophy. Based on an analysis of the evolution of European consumer credit legislation it is shown how the EU legislators approach towards consumer protection has changed.
The author discusses how the role of contemporary consumers is conceptualized by European legislators. It can be shown that EU consumer credit regulations are a perfect example for illustrating the wider changes in EU consumer legislation. The core argument of this book is that for all consumer credit aspects there is a common focal point in that there is tension between two fundamental goals of the European Community, namely economic efficiency understood as a competitive market society and consumer protection understood as a social justice society with its distributive role.
A recent strand of research in genocide studies emphasizes the intimate connections and the porous boundary between imperial and colonial violence and genocidal practices. So far, the British and German settler colonies have been the subject of such attention, but more imperial contexts need to be studied to allow for a nuanced and truly global analysis of these connections.
One such context that has received too little attention in the English language scholarship is that of the Dutch imperial presence in the Indonesian archipelago. The Journal of Genocide Research accordingly publishes these original contributions on this topic from a variety of perspectives: the history of violence and counter insurgency, decolonization, and memory. The book also explores for the first time the complex interplay and mutual influences between EU environmental integration initiatives and environmental multilateralism.
On the one hand it identifies the legal and other instruments used by the EU to support the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements in third countries particularly developing ones. On the other hand, it singles out the legal and other tools employed by the EU as a means to build partnerships with third countries in order to influence ongoing multilateral negotiations concerning the environment and sustainable development, or to contribute to the development of new international environmental norms in the absence of such multilateral negotiations.
Ultimately, the book traces the significant evolution of the various tools deployed by the EU to integrate environmental concerns in its external relations, with a view to identifying emerging challenges and future directions.
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This book is the product of a long journey of reflection, which the authors planned as doctoral students at the European University Institute EUI in Florence in and finally completed at the Edinburgh University School of Law in June How do precarious workers employed in call-centres, universities, the fashion industry and many other labour markets organise, struggle and communicate to become recognised, influential political subjects?
Media Practices and Protest Politics: How Precarious Workers Organise reveals the process by which individuals at the margins of the labour market and excluded from the welfare state communicate and struggle outside the realm of institutional politics to gain recognition in the political sphere. In this important and thought provoking work, Alice Mattoni suggests an all-encompassing approach to understanding grassroots political communication in contemporary societies.